They had grown from just another city-state into an Empire. Sparta society depended on a servile population. The state took boys from their families and trained them from youth to be soldiers. After the battle, Corinthians sent a herald to Athens to deliver a message. Causes of the Peloponnesian War. The Histories, a historical text, was written by Athenian Thucydides, who was considered one of the first historians to produce a book that was written using a scientific application and without reference to the gods. build up navy) • Peloponnesian League: Sparta and allies • War/Peace o Thirty Years’ Peace: 446, 445 BCE; divides Greek world o Athens defends Corcyra against Corinth -> Corinth-Athens conflict o Potidaeans revolt against Athens with secret deal with Sparta to invade/violate peace o Megara allies with Corinth -> Athens embargo against Megara full war Gill, N.S. At first, they resisted the calls of its allied to declare war on its arch-rival. Check your inbox for an email about the scholarship and how to apply. Several complex events occurred in Epidamnus that resulted in what Thucydides refers to as the dispute over Epidamnus. The Corinthians then retreated back home. Here, … The cause of great power war is a perennial issue for the student of politics. In both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War… Coastal city state settled by Corcyra, disputed over by Corinth. Warner, Rex, and M. I. Finley. From the end of the Persian to the beginning of the Peloponnesian War - The Progress from Supremacy to Empire CHAPTER V. Second Congress at Lacedaemon - Preparations for War … One of the most important wars in the Ancient World was the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE). Thucydides noted that many believed that war was only a matter of time and that the Thirty Years Peace Treaty would soon be broken by one side or the other. The Corinthians were not backing down, following the war against the Corcyraeans, Corinthians spent time and money building new ships and trained rowers from the Peloponnese to fight against Corcyra. He was born in the Athenian suburb of Halimos and was in Athens during the plague of c.430 B.C., a year after the war began. The only victor in the Peloponnesian War was the great king. are known as the height of the Athenian Empire. Regardless of the treaty, Athens decided to hear both sides of the argument before deciding which city to side with. Over time many events contributed to the eventual war between Sparta and Athens. Flashcards. Retrieved from Ultius | Custom Writing and Editing Services, https://www.ultius.com/ultius-blog/entry/causes-of-peloponnesian-war.html. Sicilian Expedition was a disaster for Athens and turned the tide in Sparta’s favor. It is the war that Thucydides describes that brings the … The Peloponnesian War was a conflict in ancient Greece that redefined the structure of power in the Greek-speaking world.  Additionally, there were those in Athens who believed that war should be welcomed. Certainly it was Athens’ control of trade and, more specifically, the exclusion of Megara from the Athenian agora and the harbours of the Empire which gave the Peloponnesians an excuse for war. The underlying cause of the war was the rapid rise of the Athenians. The Athenians gave the Corcyaeans the order to avoid a battle with the Corinthians- unless it was absolutely necessary. What event sparked the war between Athens and Sparta? Thucydides, an Athenian General, wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War. While there was a definite sense of ‘Greekness’ and a common cultural heritage, it did not override the more local loyalties. Our next winner will receive over $500 in funds. After the meeting, the Spartans asked everyone to leave so they could discussion the decision to move forward with the war in private. According to McKay et al. Pericles, the Athenian Empire's de-facto leader, argued against such a move as it would only encourage the Spartans to make more demands. Athens decided to lay siege to the colony. They unilaterally banned the ships of that Megara from its port and its allies. Additionally, Athens and its ambitions caused increasing instability in Greece. It had emerged as a great Empire in a quick period, and this upset the traditional balance of power. What did Achilles do in the Trojan War and how important was he in Greek culture? 431BC. Remarkably, the Athenians continued to fight, and the Spartans needed Persian help to defeat them. Written by GreekBoston.com in Ancient Greek History Comments Off on Causes of the Peloponnesian War. The Spartans and their allies concluded that Athens was acting aggressively and war must be initiated immediately. The fear of Athens increasingly led the Spartans to prepare for war, even though there is no evidence that the Athenians had any designs on Sparta or its allies. Corinth and other members of the Peloponnesian League were unhappy about Sparta’s lack of leadership. The book includes a strong argument for the fundamental credibility … Once Athens had issued the Megarian decree, it initiated a chain of events that led to the Spartan invasion of the Athenian territory. Completely original—just for you. The Spartan Kings were cautious and decided to avoid conflict with Athens at that time. Created by. Historian Donald Kagan has been studying the causes of the Peloponnesian War for decades. Click here for more help with APA citations. The dispute over Corcyra was a result of the dispute of the Epidamnus and leads to the dispute of the Potidaea. Sparta was the head of the powerful Peloponnesian League, comprised of several large city-states, including Corinth and Thebes. 0. Cultural and ethnic differences were driving the Greek world apart. The First Peloponnesian War was on. One of the most important wars in the Ancient World was the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE). The Peloponnesian war began after the Persian Wars ended in 449 BCE. The war featured two periods of combat separated by a six-year truce. PLAY. The result has been that you did not call together” (73).  Sparta was a highly militarized society, and the need for a strong and well-disciplined army was the main concern of the state. Thucydides repeatedly explains that the Peloponnesian War arose not simply from the specific grievances of this or that state but from a longer process of growing Athenian power that inspired fear among the Spartans, making the war inevitable. Sparta was almost the opposite of Athens in every way. Megarian Decree "No Megarian shall stand/ on sea or on land/ and from our markets they're utterly banned!" This war broke out because of a series of incidents, which were mentioned, in the previous paragraph. STUDY. Athens was forced to tear down its Long Walls and was fortunate not to be utterly destroyed. The response from Athenians was not what the Corinthians were hoping for; Thucydides describes Athens response to the Corinthian message,“Peloponnesians, we are not starting a war and we are not breaking the treaty. social studies. Match. Two kings from two royal families ostensibly ruled it. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. Sparta seems to have been particularly alarmed at the growing power of Athens, able to build an ever-bigger fleet of ships thanks to tributes from its allies and dependants. Sparta feared democracy, Spartans set up peloponnesian league. The primary combatants in the Peloponnesian War were the city-states of Athens and Sparta and had allies that supported them during the war. When the various parts of the history were composed, which … Learn. Athenian control of Delian League, Used other city-states money to rebuild Athens, city states were forced to stay. After the Persian navy was destroyed at the battle of Mycale, the Athenians founded the Delian League to … Athens continued the war against Persia, and it formed the Delian League. The Peloponnesian War was primarily caused by growing hostility between the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues. The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire… In this provocative and wide-ranging examination of the causes of the Peloponnesian war, first published in 1972, Geoffrey de Ste Croix argued against most previous historiography (which tended to blame Athens), that the Spartans and their allies must bear the immediate and ultimate responsibility for the war. Start … Corinthians speech to the Spartans shed light on their own government, and even complains that they have reached out to them regarding the Athenians aggressions. STUDY. Write. You read that right—We're giving away free scholarship money! STUDY. War really wouldn't have been possible at all if Sparta had not risen to challenge Athenian hegemony. I believe. The Peloponnesian War was a 30-yearlong battle between the Grecian cities of Athens and Sparta. This sample essay explores Thucydides’ work “The Histories”, which is considered to be one of the first uses of scientific historical studying practices of … Test. Essay about The Peloponnesian War 2329 Words | 10 Pages. Thucydides explains the next contributing factors for the cause of the Peloponnesian War was the dispute over the Corcyraeans. Apply today for your chance to win! The Spartans came to believe that they had no choice but to go to war. It is interesting to apply Thucydides’ judgment of the “truest cause” of the later war to the outbreak of this one. The Corcyraeans also claimed victory for maintaining two wins against the Corinthians. This League was an alliance of city-states and islands that vowed to continue the war against the Persians until they no longer represented a threat to their alliance. This war broke out because of a series of incidents, which were mentioned, in the previous paragraph. Answers (1) Norah Today, 18:45. Megara was a long-time Spartan ally, which was widely resented, as it was seen as an attempt to make Megara completely dependent on Athens. Despite this, Sparta grew increasingly fearful of Athens, and its main ally Corinth was actively encouraging it to attack Athens.. The Greeks had combined under Sparta and Athens' leadership to defeat the Persians, then the most powerful empire in Asia. , The rise of Athens meant that there were two great powers in the Greek world. Despite his involvement in the war and his Athenian roots, Thucydides represented himself as an unbiased witness in his written work in The Histories. It convulsed Greece and changed the course of the Classical world. Corcyra responded with their army and the two cities took a position for a period of time. Business document preparation services for helping you get a job. These Corcyraeans are our allies, and we came to help them.” (67). After experiencing a period of success, Epidamnus slowly lost power and reformed government from aristocratic to democratic; the democrats revoked any respect of previous aristocrats. Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support. THE CAUSES OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR IN THUCYDIDES’ WORK. Thucydides was an Athenian historian who served as a general in the Peloponnesian War. The primary causes were that Sparta feared the growing power and influence of the Athenian Empire. After the Spartan rejection of Cimon’s troops it could scarcely have been avoided. Some leading Spartans became concerned that their inaction would push the other major Greek powers to side with Athens. All Greece needed was a spark to start a war. This hostility was caused by the growing Athenian Empire as a major power in the Aegean Sea. The fundamental cause that these incidental events gave fuel to, was the fear that the Spartans had developed of the Athenians and Athens’ increasing … The causes for the Peloponnesian war were both fundamental or long term and also incidental, or short term. (555), any major war may be triggered by either known or unknown forces. Epidamnus and the Corinthians declined their request. The fundamental cause of the Peloponnesian War was А) Sparta's fear and jealousy of the power and wealth of Athens B Athens's fear of Sparta's growing empire in Greece Rome's attempt to expand into Greece Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire. Athens and the Delian League. Corinthians were searching for allies to revolt against Athens; Perdicca sent agents to the Spartans and Corinth in hopes to gain alliances to revolt against Athens and Potidaea, he also reached out to the Chaleidians and the Bottiaeans to join in revolting against Athens. Ultius, Inc. "Causes Of the Peloponnesian War." … Corcyraeans had a hostile response to the new allies and gathered their army to fight for Epidamnus. Many scholars investigating the war’s causes have … Ironically, Athens was already a party to the Peace Treaty of the Peloponnesian and had ties to the Corinthians because they too were involved in the treaty. One Corinthian representative stated at the meeting, “Many times before now we have told you what we were likely to suffer from Athens, and on each occasion, instead of taking to heart what we were telling you, you choose instead to suspect our motives and to consider that we were speaking only about our own grievances. Starting with the change in Epidamnus’ government, the partnership between Epidamnus and the Corinthians, Athens showed poor leadership traits by breaking the Peace Treaty with the Peloponnesians and forming defenses against their allies, the Corinthians motivation to continue to fight despite their loss battles against Corcyra and Athens betrayal, the continued support Athens gave to Corcyra after the Corinthians gave Athenians an opportunity to change sides, the battles involving surrounds city-states, all were causes that led up to the Peloponnesian War. 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