La Gazette de l’Université d’Ottawa a récemment publié une interview dans laquelle je partage ma vision de l’impératif d’internationalisation de l’Université et du rôle de l’enseignement supérieur dans les enjeux mondiaux de nos jours.
J’y ai aussi parlé de mon rôle à l’Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA)
Gazette de l’Université d’Ottawa
FAUBAI 2018 Conference in Rio de Janeiro is dedicated to the theme Internationalization and Research: Challenges and Strategies. I was invited to speak about the Impact of International Cooperation on Research, which is of a crucial interest.
The Power Point of my presentation is available here. Below are my notes.
The conference theme is of crucial interest too, and I would like to position my contribution vis-à-vis the general topic of the conference because one could not speak about Impacts and Internationalization of Research without addressing the strategy and the challenges this subject poses for SIO and the University leadership.
Actually, we need first of all to know what we really mean by Impact, International Cooperation, and Research in this specific context of Internationalization. Are we talking about “international research”? Internationalization of Research?, What about “Impacts” and what are we referring to?
To make things easier, I assume that we are addressing the “evaluation of the support we (SIO’s, university administrators), offer to researchers and research projects being conducted in cooperation with international research partners”. We are not going to address the evaluation of the research results themselves, which is the responsibility of the vice president research, or their equivalent.
INTENTIONAL COMPREHENSIVE INTERNATIONALIZATION FRAMEWORK
In order to be really comprehensive, any Internationalization Strategy should cover the three dimension of the University mission, namely:
Such a strategy cannot be implemented without clear and shared responsibility that networks and connects all the actors in the institution. Like any network, Internationalization is an approach that needs Rules of Governance and Administration. Hence the two additional legs to the Framework:
At the 2016 CBIE conference in Ottawa, I insisted on the Grammar of Internationalization. The word Internationalization is a transitive action that commands an object. Internationalization alone is incomplete. We should talk about Internationalization of Research, Internationalization of Education (International Education is the result), and Internationalization of Community services. The two other legs are Administration of Internationalization and Governance of Internationalization.
Internationalization of Research commands:
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS
In this framework, International cooperation is one of the means we have at our disposal (a means we can develop, implement) in order to take research actions and achieve objectives. International cooperation, as a means, is an approach, a way to conduct research or any other Internationalization effort, entirely or partially. It can be materialized in the shape of “a partnership” and supported by an “agreement”, a “contract”, or any other document.
International cooperation includes:
WHY TO INTERNATIONALIZE RESEARCH
Is research international by nature? Do we need to internationalize research? And if yes, Why and How?
The Danish minister of Higher Education and Science, Ulla Tørnæs, stated in 2016 that “Internationalisation of research is important, not a goal in itself, but as a means to increase the impact and quality of Danish research.”
But, It is very common to hear researchers and University administrators saying: Research is international by nature, so there is no need to internationalize it. I would argue it is not. Some research programs and projects are International. Some research programs and projects cannot be developed and sustained without International cooperation and collaboration, like for example the Space Science and Space exploration programs, or the Global Health programs. Some research areas and programs are international and global by nature of their research objects, while some research projects could be inter-national because they spread over several nations or are of interest to those nations.
But, all research is not international by nature. Even research on global issues such as climate change, renewable energy, clean technologies, global health, may be conducted locally without any international cooperation. Hence the imperative for universities who are willing to become international and global players to internationalize the research component of their University mission.
BENEFITS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON RESEARCH
Here are few examples of benefits a University Internationalization Strategy might look to have by developing International Cooperation for Research.
How to internationalize research
HOW TO MEASURE/EVALUATE/ASSESS THE IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
The evaluation of the Internationalization efforts is, as conceived in the framework, the responsibility of the administration of Internationalization. It is a very serious task, often time overlooked because of the lack of clarity in the responsibility, and because of the lack of an adapted evaluation framework. Measuring the impacts has to be explicitly planned for, and done in an agreed upon framework. One should not improvise when it comes to the evaluation step of any project, more seriously wen it involves partnership and partners. However, it is important to clarify that evaluating the impact of international cooperation on research is not evaluating the Research itself neither the impact of research. Evaluation of Research and its Impacts is the responsibility of the vice president for Research, or their Research office, or the Research councils and agencies, on an administrative side, and the responsibility of the community of peer scientists and researchers, on the other side. When we internationalize research, we aim at achieving specific objectives, one of them could be enhancing the quality of research, or developing research capacity, etc.
The identification and definition of the evaluation object is of crucial importance, otherwise we iterate confusion and create troubles. In the Intentional Comprehensive Internationalization Framework, I proposed to borrow the Outcome mapping theory and adapt it for the Internationalization of Higher Education. Evaluation of Internationalization Efforts is the responsibility of the Administration of Internationalization. A framework should be established and agreed upon in the Internationalization Strategy and it should cover all three dimension of the University Mission. It has three components:
Example of evaluation of International Research Cooperation:
(Expected or unexpected)
|Research cooperation||Number of reviewed papers and conferences
Number of students trained
Equipment and facilities
Trips and meetings
|New knowledge developed
New solutions developed or improved
New patents (expected)
New awards (unexpected)
New or more funds
New researchers hired
|Problem solved thanks to the research: totally (attribution) or partially (contribution)
New policy developed based on the research results
New enterprise created
Example: Evaluation of Internationalization of Teaching and learning. Study abroad.
(Expected or unexpected)
|Internationalization of Teaching and learning||Number of students abroad
Number and amount of scholarships
Number of programs
|Enhanced teaching and learning experience
New experience: international
More visibility for the institution
More research partnership (unexpected)
Increased number of students (unexpected)
Better chance of employment
Better institutional reputation
Example of a University strategy. We anonymized the text:
WE CREATE SOLUTIONS FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE WORLD
Achieving and maintaining research excellence is a primary goal and a matter of pride at [our university].
OUTPUT: We monitor the quality of our research yearly through international rankings. Our target is to be among the top 50 universities in the world.
OUTPUT: Our researchers publish in the best journals. We aim for a 15% increase in the number of top quality international scientific publications by 2020.
OUTCOME: [our university] will be a pioneer in open knowledge
OUTPUT: and aims to increase its number of Open Access publications by 40%.
We provide support for our researchers as they make even
OUTCOME: stronger research applications for international research funding.
OUTPUT: Our target is to increase international research funding up to 50 million euro annually.
IMPACT: We produce world class high-impact knowledge that contributes to solving global problems. Together with our partners we are building a better, more sustainable world.
NOTA BENE: However, it does not say in which areas of research or which global issues. How to measure it? Story telling? Theory of change? Other methods? Etc.
How to collect the outputs, outcomes and impacts
When to collect the outputs, outcomes and impacts
CHALLENGES AND CONCLUSION
In 2015-2016, I started the development of an integrated framework showing how a comprehensive internationalization strategy could be intentionally designed as networked system. It has to be systemic across the three dimension of the mandate of the institution, that is Research, Education and Community Services. It has also to integrate the Administration and the Governance of Internationalization.
The framework is network-based one and illustrates a new type of organizations, in the era of connected generation and a new type of leadership.
Presentation can be downloaded here.
“[The] reduction into parts and the proliferation of separations has characterized not just organizations, but everything in the Western world during the past three hundred years. We broke knowledge into separate disciplines and subjects, built offices and schools with divided spaces, developed analytic techniques that focus on discrete factors, and even counselled ourselves to act in fragments, to use different “parts” of ourselves in different settings.”
Wheatley, Margaret J. “Leadership and the New Science.” Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Peut-on vraiment parler de stratégie nationale d’internationalisation de l’enseignement supérieur alors que l’on n’a pas d’entité en charge et que la définition même d’internationalisation n’est pas claire?
Cette pensée du jour d’Alex Usher et Robert Burroughs, de HESA Research Associate donne une bonne idée de la raison pour laquelle il est difficile de stratégiser au niveau national et de la nature du document appelé stratégie qu’un tel exercice donne asses souvent.
A mon avis, il y a aussi le fait que les définitions de l’objet de la stratégie sont souvent pas claires ou pas conformes à la réalité des institutions et à ce que les experts et praticiens signifient quand ils parlent d’internationalisation. A titre d’exemple, le rapport Education Mondiale pour les Canadiens ne fait pas de différence entre Internationalisation et Globalisation. Il se concentre sur l’aspect “Éducation” et ne fait pas de place à l’internationalisation des autres aspects de la mission universitaire (ou de l’enseignement supérieur).
2018 AIEA Conference
I attended the 2018 AIEA conference in Washington DC from 19 to 22 of February. As usual, this event is the best venue to meet Senior International Officers from more than 40 countries and to meet with a few number of selected providers on international education services in the world.
Hot topic thematic this year: The Internationalization Imperative in Turbulent Times.
I facilitated the AIEA workshop on the role of the the University and the SIO in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs, and presented with my colleagues from University of Toronto and McGill University a Canadian perspective on Internationalizing in turbulent times. We shared some examples of initiatives taken by Canadian universities and organizations to help refugees and students and scholars at risk. A second presentation with my colleagues from Harvard University and National Taiwan University about the University Leadership in turbulent times allowed us to interact with a group of more than 40 participants about the responsibility of the University in communicating, helping and supporting students and faculty in this era of clash of globalization. Our presentations will be added soon to the Conference web page.
Few Highlights from the Conference: