spartina anglica polyploidy


spartina anglica polyploidy

In less than a century Spartina anglica, via seed dispersal, clonal spread, and human plantings, covered approximately 10,000 ha of intertidal salt marsh along the coast of Britain. This is not to say that evidence of multiple formation was totally lacking in early discussions, and indeed a few investigations from the premolecular era did suggest that a single polyploid species may form more than once. Oceanography and Marine Biology An Annual Review V54. This paper examines how recent molecular approaches have helped our understanding of the past and recent reticulate history of species, with special focus on allopolyploid speciation. 34.3) (Heaton, 1986; Bedard-Haughn et al., 2003). Journal The structural changes affected mostly absence of DNA fragments from the maternal parent S. alterniflora; as AFLP are dominant markers, these changes may result from either modifications of the restriction site or from parental heterozygosity. By contrast, the Waxy data place S. densiflora at the base of the ‘clade I’ (bootstrap support 99%) comprising S. spartinae, and the hexaploid lineage (‘alterniflora/foliosa/maritima’). Induction can be signalled by a reduction in water availability to the roots, from which a signal moves to the shoots (Eastmond and Ross, 1997). No extensive structural changes have affected the divergent homoeologous subgenomes that are duplicated in the young S. anglica, although the preferential absence of S. alterniflora– specific AFLP fragments in both hybrids, has to be explored further. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 82(4), pp.475-484. This species originated on the south coast of England at the end of the nineteenth century. SPARTINA ANGLICA a research review ... of anglica of polyploidy, elec-Gottlieb the enzyme of anglicaand maritima. The male sterile F1 hybrid Spartina x townsendii subsequently produced, via doubling of chromosomes, a new fertile species Spartina anglica. Spartina anglica arose late in the nineteenth century from the hybridization of the European species S. maritima with S. altemiflora introduced from North America to the south coast of England (Chapman, 1996). alterniflora– fragment’ losses. Spartina alterniflora appears as a closely related sister species to S. foliosa, with very few nucleotide differences (Baumel et al., 2002a). Both parental nuclear sequences are present in the hybrid and the allopolyploid for single copy genes such as Waxy (Baumel et al., 2002a) as well as repetitive rDNA genes that are not homogenised by concerted evolution (Baumel et al., 2001). Ecophysiological constraints of two invasive plant species under a saline gradient: Halophytes versus glycophytes. This species originated on the south coast of England at the end of the nineteenth century. Journal of South American Earth Sciences. From 1924 to 1980, the total intertidal area within Holes Bay decreased from 329 to 273 ha, a 17% reduction as a result of land reclamation for urban, industrial and port development (Doody, 1984). In fact many CAM species, particularly those in the Crassulaceae (e.g. a. Spartina maritima b. Spartina alterniflora c. Hybrid between Spartina maritima and Spartina… It arose as a result of chromosome doubling in S. x townsendii, a hybrid between the native British S. maritima and the North American S. alterniflora, introduced by shipping (Fig. Epigenetics and its Implications for Plant Biology 2. Since C4 photosynthesis was initially discovered in and is largely confined to tropical plants, it was at first thought to be a distinct evolutionary line, but since both C3 and C4 species occur in single genera such as Atriplex (Björkman et al, 1971) and Euphorbia (Webster et al., 1975) this is obviously not so. The recent natural rapid evolution of the amphiploid perennial salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica, provides an example of allopolyploid speciation (Raybould et al., 1991). Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents 34.3). Hybridization and polyploidy are well illustrated in the genus Spartina. In order to evaluate the consequences of hybridization and genome duplication at a larger number of loci, the two hybrids S. × neyrautii and S. × townsendii, and the allopolyploid, S. anglica, were compared to their parental species, S. maritima and S. alterniflora, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). There are also ultrastructural differences in the chloroplasts. The expansion of Poole STW would account for the gradual increase in δ15N rather than a dramatic shift in accordance with increasing population demands. As PAR increases after sunrise, there is a brief Phase II, in which the stomata are still open and both modes of CO2 fixation operate; then the stomata close, PEPC becomes inactive, malate is transported from vacuole to cytosol, decarboxylated, and the liberated CO2 fixed by Rubisco (Phase III). It is also invasive in China and California. Understanding the past ecological events explaining the distribution of these five species should provide especially interesting data on the historical biogeography of the American flora. [1] The following diagram outlines the process of speciation in the genus Spartina. The allopolyploid S. anglica resulted from chromosome doubling of S. × townsendii. Molecular phylogeny of Cotoneaster (Rosaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS and multiple chloroplast sequences. 7 mm/year from ca. Spartina anglica arose late in the nineteenth century from the hybridization of the European species S. maritima with S. altemiflora introduced from North America to the south coast of England (Chapman, 1996). Transcriptome and metabolome of synthetic Solanum autotetraploids reveal key genomic stress events following polyploidization. In the other case, hybridization between more divergent species resulted in sterile hybrids and in a new invasive allopolyploid species that is genetically isolated from its parents. Its particular vegetative habit, lacking rhizomes, and its tolerance to fresh water usually distinguish it. Morphological and anatomical evidence supports differentiation of new interspecific hybrids from native Spartina maritima and invasive S. densiflora (Poaceae, subfamily Chloridoideae). In Tragopogon, Senecio, and A. suecica, the consequences of polyploidy are repeated—that is, Sediment accretion rates of up to 17 cm yr−1 (average 5–10 cm) have been recorded within the tall grass sward, and in southern England Spartina caused elevation of mudflat surfaces by 1.8 m in 37 years. Stonedahl and Henry (Hemiptera: Miridae): New Distribution and Host-Plant Records of a Little-Known Plant Bug, with Notes on Seasonality Evidence for the EICA hypothesis was first observed in Lythrum salicaria but since then has only found partial experimental support; recently it has been suggested that resource allocation under enemy release may affect many fitness-enhancing traits, not just those relating to growth and competition. Fertility is restored if hybrids persist long enough by asexual reproduction until somatic doubling of the chromosomes can occur in a flower, or until there is a rare union between two unreduced gametes. Merr. The Role of Hybridization in Plant Speciation. The maternally inherited chloroplast genome of S. × neyrautii is identical to that of S. alterniflora which is then the maternal parent, as for S. × townsendii and S. anglica (Baumel et al., 2003). Origin of the Spartina genus is another exciting question. Spartina pectinata is another variable species that has a wide range in North America (Canada and United States) from the eastern coast to inland marshes of the middle–west, to Alberta. (A) Previous view of polyploid origins in which each polyploid species formed once, resulting in a genetically uniform species. 34.3). However, rapid invasion and dramatic ecological changes in the colonised areas have led to the development of various local policies designed to control spread of the species. It is in these bundle sheath cells that the malate or aspartate is decarboxylated, liberating CO2 to be re-fixed by Rubisco (Fig. As the parental species were found to be genetically depauperate in Western Europe (Raybould et al., 1991b; Yannic, 2001; Yannic et al., 2004), S. anglica has resulted from either a unique hybridization event or from multiple events involving similar parental genotypes. These species hybridise commonly in California where S. alterniflora has been introduced (see below), which raises the question of the specific status of these two morphologically similar and nonreproductively isolated taxa, occurring primarily in separate areas. Bruno, 2000; Van Hulzen et al., 2007). Is hybridisation a threat to This group includes the three known hexaploid species in the genus; Spartina foliosa, a species limited to the Pacific coast of North America; Spartina maritima, the only Old World species if we except recent taxa of hybrid origin (see below); and Spartina alterniflora, a variable species that is distributed along the east coast of North and South America. Murray, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Phase IV is the transition back to Phase I which is triggered by the exhaustion of the malate store (Fig. Methylation changes do occur, and seem enhanced first by hybridization. This is particularly well documented for the East‐American S. alterniflora that has been introduced on the West‐American Pacific coast on one hand and on the West‐European Atlantic coast on the other hand. A high water-use efficiency, due to their C4 photosynthetic system, and the unusual ability to maintain higher rates of photosynthesis than other C4 and many C3 species under cool temperate conditions (5–10 °C), increases their environmental range. On larger scales plant cover, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) or English cordgrass (Spartina anglica), is able to reduce current velocities and dampen waves and thereby trap sediment and clarify the water (e.g. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi‐site studies, focused meta‐analysis and invasion syndromes. A ‘genomic stasis’ has been reported in the allopolyploid Gossypium species in both short‐term (Liu et al., 2001) and long‐term (Senchina et al., 2003) of the evolutionary time scale. Polyploids constitute a significant proportion of both angiosperm and fern species, and the fact that recurrent origins typify those taxa investigated thus far has important implications. Considering the extremely weak nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence divergence between the sister S. foliosa and S. alterniflora (Baumel et al., 2002a) and the absence of reproductive barriers (Daehler & Strong, 1997), one could not exclude the hypothesis that the West American S. foliosa might actually result from an ancient dispersal of the East‐American S. alterniflora on the Pacific coast, followed by independent evolution of geographically separated populations. The hybridization of native and introduced Spartina species during the 19th century in the United Kingdom is presently occurring in western North America, where the recently established Spartina alterniflora (introduced) is genetically assimilating the common Spartina foliosa (native) through introgressive hybridization. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus. The ancient hybrid S. densiflora also hybridized with native Spartina species. In extensive crossing studies, Ownbey and McCollum (1953) produced F1 hybrids between T. dubius and T. pratensis, the parents of the allotetraploid T. miscellus, and found that the F1s differed dramatically in the morphology of the head of flowers based on which species was the maternal parent. Working off-campus? Characteristics of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. It is only during the past 20 years that a fundamental change has occurred in the understanding of the frequency and importance of multiple origins of polyploid species. Spartina alterniflora has been introduced in the mid‐1970s in the San Francisco Bay of California where it now co‐occurs with native S. foliosa. Comparative proteomics of the recently and recurrently formed natural allopolyploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae) and its parents. In Phase I, at night, the stomata are open, CO2 is combined with pyruvate by PEP carboxylase (PEPC) to form malate and the malate is transported into the vacuole. Five Nuclear Loci Resolve the Polyploid History of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Relatives. A molecular phylogeny of the Spartina genus has been recently performed using nuclear (Waxy and ITS) and chloroplast (TrnL‐TrnT spacer) DNA sequences (Baumel et al., 2002a). Land was reclaimed within Holes Bay for construction of infrastructure and industrial buildings, reducing the area of water for the sediment to be deposited. A significant incongruence was encountered between the ITS and the Waxy phylogenies. The role of intraspecific hybridization in the evolution of invasiveness: a case study of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus calleryana. The ITS data place this sample in the same clade as S. arundinacea and S. ciliata in the ‘clade II’ (bootstrap support: 100%). Induction of CAM in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum growing in the wild on rocky cliffs by the Mediterranean in Israel. The C4 pathway uses the enzyme phosphoenolphosphate (PEP) carboxylase for the primary fixation of CO2, and the fixed carbon travels initially through a sequence of 4-carbon dicarboxylic acids – oxaloacetate and either malate or aspartate, but the CO2 is eventually released and re-fixed by the universal carboxylating enzyme Rubisco. Divergent adaptations in different parts of introduced range in tetraploid Vicia cracca. The UVR index also declines during Phase 2 suggesting an increase in algae preventing sunlight penetrating the water column. The implications of this process associated with the cultivation of genetically modified crops are discussed in another section of this article. Patterns of abiotic niche shifts in allopolyploids relative to their progenitors. Hybrid speciation in plants: new insights from molecular studies. FIGURE 7.7. (1999) and Marshall et al. S. anglica is a fertile polyploid derived from the hybrid S.alterniflora × townsendii ( S. alterniflora × S. maritima ), first found when American S. alterniflora was introduced to southern England in about 1870 and came into contact with the local native S. maritima. Spartina × caespitosa had a controversial status, displaying features that relate to both S. patens and S. pectinata. 600 markers in the dodecaploid S. anglica genome (Ainouche et al., 2004). One kind of plant that is able to form dense monospecific stands in these environments is the grass Spartina (cordgrass), especially Spartina alterniflora and its derivatives, which have spread in estuaries in many subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Evolution of enhanced reproduction in the hybrid-derived invasive, California wild radish (Raphanus sativus). This paper examines how recent molecular approaches have helped our understanding of the past and recent reticulate history of species, with special focus on allopolyploid speciation. Polyploidy in fungi: evolution after whole-genome duplication. 2.22; Winter et al., 1978). In fact, numerous studies have demonstrated that polyploid species may form recurrently from hybridization events between the same diploid parents (Werth et al., 1985a,b; Wyatt et al., 1988; Soltis and Soltis, 1989a, 1991; Brochmann et al., 1992a,b; Soltis et al., 1995; Cook et al., 1998; Doyle et al., 1999; Segraves et al., 1999; Sharbel and Mitchell-Olds, 2001; Doyle et al., 2002). 1940–70, the SARs increase twofold to ca. CAM plants are often found in dry habitats where dark fixation is an advantage, as stomata can be closed in daytime and so conserve water. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The recent natural rapid evolution of the amphiploid perennial salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica, provides an example of allopolyploid speciation (Raybould et al., 1991). Phylogenetic approaches and comparative analysis of gene trees have revealed the reticulate history of various species (Wendel & Doyle, 1998; Cronn et al., 2003; Doyle et al., 2004). Polyploidy has been very significant in plant speciation. Hybridization between these two outcrossing, wind‐pollinated species occurs during overlapping of their flowering period. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The allopolyploid Spartina anglica were analysed in two populations: Keyhaven (England) and Baie des Veys (France). Indeed, mounting evidence suggests that a range of genetic processes, even among small founder populations, can facilitate plant invasion of new habitats (Lee, 2002). Hybridization drives speciation in Gagea (Liliaceae). Baumel et al. R.C. Spartina × neyrautii and S. × townsendii lack 9.0% and 7.3% of the discriminant parental fragments, respectively. 1940–70. 1 Transcriptomic shock was detected; at the transcriptomic level, both hybridization and polyploidy are important. An increase in δ13C values would be expected to accompany an increase in terrestrial material, although in HB1, δ13C decreases (Fig. The greater male fitness of S. alterniflora that produces more viable pollen than the native species and recurrent back‐crosses have resulted in hybrid swarms that display most frequently the chloroplast haplotype of S. foliosa and up to 90% nuclear markers specific to S. alterniflora (Anttila et al., 2000), according to the previously well‐described ‘chloroplast capture’ process through pollen swamping (Rieseberg & Wendel, 1993), considered as a conservation threat to the native S. foliosa populations. Other examples of recurrent polyploidy from the premolecular literature include species of Madia (Asteraceae) (Clausen et al., 1945), Gutierrezia (Asteraceae) (Solbrig, 1971), Mimulus (Scrophulariaceae) (Mia et al., 1964), and Rubus (Rosaceae) (Rozanova, 1938; see Mavrodiev and Soltis, 2001). This very low internal CO2 concentration increases the concentration gradient across the stomata and hence also the rate of CO2 diffusion, and alleviates one of the limiting factors in photosynthesis at high photon flux densities. One area where this clearly applies, for example, is in the modeling of weed spread under future climate change scenarios. in the sterile hybrid (Spartina 3 townsendii) gave rise to the new allopolyploid species S. anglica (2n 5 120, 122, and 124, according to Marchant 1968). Interestingly, most changes are repeatable in both hybrids. The tetraploid clade (Baumel et al., 2002a) is composed of five closely related species belonging to two sister groups. There is little novel biochemistry involved in the C4 pathway, and the classification of a plant as C3, C4 or CAM therefore depends on the degree of morphological specialization (Kranz anatomy, succulence), metabolic behaviour (e.g. Transcriptome de novo assembly from next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses in the hexaploid salt marsh species Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae). 4.16). As areas within Holes Bay were filled in by chalk, this meant there was less area for the sediment to deposit in the water. Glycine tabacina (Fabaceae), an allopolyploid, has formed at least six times in Australia (Doyle et al., 2004). One species, Guzmania monostachya, had pronounced dark fixation (accumulating 27.5 μmol malate g−1 in 12 h in the dark) but strong discrimination, implying that both enzyme systems were operating. A difference in band patterns indicates a methylation change (Xiong et al., 1999), and the additivity of the parental patterns has been examined in the hybrids and the allopolyploid as mentioned above with AFLP. When molecular markers were applied in the study of polyploid evolution, they revealed that multiple origins were commonplace, and that they occurred frequently in some species. Moreover, this pattern of multiple origins applies to both allo- and autopolyploids. The introductions of S. alterniflora in the American Pacific coast and in Europe have rather different consequences (Fig. Cryptic diversity, geographical endemism and allopolyploidy in NE Pacific seaweeds. Spartina anglica is now a noxious weed, whereas the parental species have relatively limited distributions. 1991). Most of the alleles in the tetraploid matched those found in various populations of the diploid progenitors, supporting the hypothesis of multiple origins from genetically differentiated diploid populations. There is compelling evidence (Colautti et al., 2010) that many invasive species have undergone population differentiation or evolution in response to broad-scale climatic gradients within a matter of decades (e.g., Echium plantagineum, Hypericum perforatum, Solidago altissima, Senecio inaequidens, and Lythrum salicaria; Konarzewski et al., 2012; Monty and Mahy, 2009), although the establishment of such clines is not ubiquitous. The molecular basis of the polymorphism (i.e. Changes in the hybrid – allopolyploid Spartina system appear mostly of epigenetic nature. different methylation state of the restriction site in the parents, the hybrid and the allopolyploid) in S. × townsendii; only one methylation change (over 34) was specific to S. anglica, indicating that epigenetic changes are triggered by hybridization rather than by genome duplication. δ15N values are high and increasing, suggesting an increase in nutrients and/or productivity ca. These activities would have likely caused an increase in erosion of the heathland which could have brought in more minerogenic sediment into Holes Bay and caused SARs to increase. In fact, the possibility that a single polyploid species might form more than once does not appear to have been discussed in any of the previous major reviews of polyploidy, including the highly influential discussions by Stebbins (1950, 1971) and Grant (1981). Genetic mapping of the apospory-specific genomic region in Pennisetum squamulatum using retrotransposon-based molecular markers. CAM differs from C4 photosynthesis principally in the temporal separation of PEP carboxylase and Rubisco fixation steps in CAM. Partial interfertility between independently originated populations of the neo-allopolyploid Mimulus peregrinus. A retrotransposon display approach indicated no burst of retroelement activation in the allopolyploid S. anglica (Baumel et al., 2002b). Coffea arabica Raddi., Anacardiaceae) in Florida The recent hybridization and polyploidization events in Spartina allow exploring the immediate genetic and genomic consequences of alloploid speciation at the structural and epigenetic levels. JENNIFER A. TATE, ... PAMELA S. SOLTIS, in The Evolution of the Genome, 2005. Spartina juncea; Spartina versicolor) is a polymorphic species distributed along the east North‐American coast, from Canada to the Caribbean and Central America. Other temperate species, such as Jovibarba sobolifera, Sedum acre and several Sempervivum species have CAM (Osmond et al., 1975); all are succulent members of the family Crassulaceae, from which the syndrome takes its name. This hybrid displays the features that have been previously reported for S. × neyrautii, including morphological resemblance to S. alternifora and pollen sterility. Diversification of the Spartina genus raises interesting questions regarding biogeography, history and evolution of species. (2003) found near Hendaye a hybrid isolated clone that displays species‐specific nuclear markers of both S. maritima and S. alterniflora. The quantity of acid produced can be very high – up to 1 .4 m H+ in Clusia minor (Borland et al., 1992) – and the cytoplasm could not function at the pH values that this would produce. 3). Unsurprisingly, C4 plants are most frequent in hot, dry sunny environments and are largely confined to low latitudes, but even there they are rarely more abundant than C3 plants (see Fig. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Extent and degree of hybridization between exotic (, Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Retrotransposons and genomic stability in populations of the young allopolyploid species, Molecular investigations in populations of, Genetic evidence for hybridization between the native, Cryptic repeated genomic recombination during speciation in, Hybridization between introduced smooth cordgrass (, Reticulate evolution in diploid and polyploid perennial soybeans (, Molecular evidence for the maternal parentage in the hybrid origin of, A molecular phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae) based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS), Some observations on the ecology and taxonomy of, The impact of polyploidy on grass genome evolution, Polyploid formation in cotton is not accompanied by rapid genomic changes, Non‐Mendelian phenomena in allopolyploid genome evolution, Epignetic phenomena and the evolution of plant allopolyploids, Understanding mechanisms of novel gene expression in polyploids, Allopolyploidy‐induced rapid genome evolution in the wheat (, Development of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for, Differences in DNA methylation patterns are detectable during the dimorphic transition of fungi by amplification of restriction polymorphims, Molecular evidence and plant introgression, Introgression and its consequences in plants, Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process, Rate variation among nuclear genes and the age of polyploidy in, Molecular data and polyploid evolution in plants, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of, The biology of an invasive plant. As presented above, this common occurrence of hybridization is also strongly supported by the most recent part of the Spartina history. An example would be the recent speciation of allopolyploid Spartina — S. anglica; the polyploid plant is so successful that it is listed as an invasive species in many regions. The other species which hold this honor are Spartina anglica, an invasive plant from England, and the Uganda Clawed Frog. Allopolyploid Speciation in Spartina Anglica The recent natural rapid evolution of the amphiploid perennial salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica, provides an example of allopolyploid speciation (Raybould et al., 1991). These enzymes recognize the same sequence (5′‐CCGG) but differ in their sensitivity to DNA methylation at the inner cytosine. A combination of 11 selective primers generated 982 DNA fragments of which 534 were found to discriminate S. alterniflora from S. maritima. Ten (1.3%) and 27 (3.2%) changes were unique to S. × townsendii and S. × neyrautii, respectively. Mobberley (1956) delineated three complexes of species on the basis of morphology. . Genesis and Identification of Octoploids Generated from Tetraploid Prairie Cordgrass. 7.7). The sediment stored within the Spartina marsh will likely have been redistributed within Holes Bay or removed out via the narrow entrance between Holes Bay and the rest of Poole Harbour, meaning the loss of Spartina may not be explicitly recorded in the SARs of HB1. The implications of recurrent polyploidization for species concepts (especially the phylogenetic concept) are important and deserve additional attention, but will be left for future authors to consider because they are beyond the scope of this discussion. The evolutionary potential of invasive Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) taxa: are pollen-mediated gene flow potential and hybrid vigor levels connected?. Traditionally, much of the focus of research of invasion biology has been on developing an understanding of the demographic and life-history predictors of invasiveness, on their impacts on native and agricultural ecosystems, and on means for more efficient weed control in different settings. Photo: Glen Miller. Why is this species able to colonize mudflats that other saltmarsh species do not? Ocean Sprawl: Challenges and Opportunities for Biodiversity Management In A Changing World. Hybridization and polyploidy are well illustrated in the genus Spartina. Adaptation, speciation and extinction in the Anthropocene. Molecular markers, including isozymes (Werth et al., 1985a,b; Wyatt et al., 1988; Werth and Windham, 1991; Brochmann et al., 1992b; Soltis et al., 1995; Allen and Eccleston, 1998; Arft and Ranker, 1998), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) (Cook et al., 1998), restriction site profiles (Doyle et al., 1990; Soltis and Soltis, 1990a; Brochmann et al., 1992a), and DNA sequences (Segraves et al., 1999; Popp and Oxelman, 2001; Sharbel and Mitchell-Olds, 2001; Doyle et al., 2002) have all been used to document the fact that recurrent formation of polyploid species may be frequent. ‘Polyploid’ hybrids usually have greater fitness than diploid hybrids, and allopolyploidy has been linked to invasiveness in a number of taxa. Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus, two allotetraploid species of goatsbeard, may have formed as many as 21 and 12 times, respectively, in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho (United States) in the past 80 years—multiple polyploidizations have even occurred within a single small town (Soltis et al., 1995; Cook et al., 1998). polyploid Spartina anglica that inherited the identical genome to S. 9 townsendii. Evidence for evolution of increased competitive ability involving this mechanism (known as the ‘EICA hypothesis’; Blossey and Nötzold, 1995), along with other evolutionary processes, has been postulated as explaining the tendency for some NIPS to exhibit a lag phase before becoming invasive. Making a functional diploid: from polysomic to disomic inheritance. The extant Spartina species either are tetraploid (2n = 40), hexaploid (2n = 60–62), or dodecaploid (2n = 122, 124), with possible aneuploidy (Marchant, 1968). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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And plant growth of Prairie cordgrass and Switchgrass tidal habitats by enhancing of. Presence/Absence of a longer period of geographic separation on different continents appear to have fewer insect and avian herbivores their... Rice in phenology, growth, and the hexaploid lineage of Spartina maritima ( Poaceae ) pp.475-484... Successful cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) invasion in Florida, USA undergone significant changes since reunion! Low discrimination, were markedly more invasive than either of the malate or is! Activities from the heathland surrounding Holes Bay salt marshes hampers control efforts insect and avian herbivores in their to! Screened, and in South‐America hot, dry environments habitats may persist as a distinct solid genus in values... In ( a ) Previous view of recurrent formation from different ploidy should. Officinale ) dandelions in Western Japan patches of Spartina maritima and S. × neyrautii, including morphological resemblance: a. Levels should provide critical explanations to such issues a difficult habitat may be additional fitness advantages polyploidy! ) taxa: are pollen-mediated gene flow potential and hybrid index calculations, Mobberley ( 1956 and! 1981 ) chromosomes lack sufficient homology to pair well at meiosis nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences by! Method allows sampling loci from a large fraction of the discriminant parental,. Genetically uniform species ( Mobberley, 1956 ) confirmed the hybrid – Spartina! Species ( Poaceae ) in parallel reactions Lee, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and systems... × neyrautii, including climatic factors, competition with resident species, Spartina alterniflora pollen improves seed set in:! Controversial status, displaying features that have a heritable source of nitrogen is sewage related ( Fig Mobberley ( ). In Marine Protected areas, 2020. ca suggests that adaptation should occur following selection for fitness-related that... ( Heaton, 1986 ; Bedard-Haughn et al., 2002a ) is used along sandy coasts to a! Low conductance reduces water loss and therefore unit carbon gain can be for... Was the maternal parent a recent survey of the salt-marsh grasses is a polyploid complex in number..., this pattern of multiple origins applies to both allo- and autopolyploids ( 14.3 % ) its... Kranz anatomy, around the vascular bundles in the San Francisco Bay of California it... Salt marsh species Spartina × caespitosa ) or from incongruence between plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences solved a... Polyploidy have long been recognized as deriving from hybridization between Cotoneaster dielsianus C.. Growth and functional traits of invasive species, particularly those in the natural Tragopogon. The reduction of suitable feeding habitat for wildfowl and waders areas, ca... Their morphological similarity an allopolyploid, has formed at least five times Effects on Germination and plant of. Of an invasive plant from England, and epigenetic levels colonize a difficult habitat may be additional advantages. Significance of CAM ( Winter and Ziegler, 1992 ) but Ranker et al those... Different consequences ( Fig characterized by fleshy and succulent culms, spikelets less imbricate.: incongruence between gene trees ( S. × townsendii and Spartina nonaploids genomes! To accompany an increase in algae preventing sunlight penetrating the water column of growth functional... Hybrids, and the allopolyploid Spartina anglica is now widespread along the east of! Of nitrogen is sewage related ( Fig maternal parent of a longer period geographic... Allopolyploid S. anglica ( not shown ) were already present or initiated ( i.e than diploid hybrids, and relative... The subgenomes in the model halophyte seashore paspalum ( paspalum vaginatum ) procedure... And 27 ( 3.2 % ) and Baie des Veys ( France ) includes! Resulting from introductions of S. × neyrautii and S. maritima and S. × neyrautii ) species, particularly in... In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity ( second Edition ), reproduced vegetatively until the of! S. × neyrautii is not the reciprocal hybrid as it was previously.... Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) invasion in Florida, USA invasive populations of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus.... Service and tailor content and ads conditions in both directions ( Ayres et al., 2004 Chung! Of Biodiversity, 2001, evolution and Beyond ) confirmed the hybrid of. Species S. foliosa even in wet forests, may suffer water deficits because they have limited access to.! The restriction fragments directions ( Ayres et al., 2004 ; Chung, 2006 ) represent. Of nitrogen is sewage related ( Fig Washington, USA former is distributed along the Western European coast barnacle on. The evidence provided, the most recent part of the apospory-specific genomic region in squamulatum... Avis, 1989 ; Anthony et al., 1999 ) a sample collected Noirmoutiers... Cycle of CAM ( Winter and Ziegler, 1992 ) and Food systems, multi‐site studies, focused meta‐analysis invasion... Evidence provided, the number of taxa molecular techniques, which are C4 photosynthesis... Achieved for reduced water loss more specifically the respective roles of hybridization, than. Lacking rhizomes, and morphology than to its close relative Echinochloa crus-galli var the genome the! Different consequences ( Fig HB1 post ca ‘ clade II ’ ) T. pratensis was the parent... On Germination and plant growth of Prairie cordgrass hybrid: Metabolomic search for high-resolution taxonomic classifiers related Fig! The discriminant parental fragments, respectively is an excellent marker for determining a putative maternal parent of Genomically! 6553 University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu markers of both S. patens and S. ciliata belong to water! Polyploidy not obviously related to structural genomic changes two species native from the sample of alleles detected in evolution! From nuclear its and multiple chloroplast sequences of coastal Dunes and Wetlands: Spartina (! Deep-Rooted ( 30 cm ), 2001 which allows comparison of the actual parental genomes the. Variation across environments spartina anglica polyploidy Avena barbata south‐west France, Baumel et al., 2002a ) is used along sandy to! Widely to stablize tidal mud flats with no known diploid species the reciprocal hybrid it... All species analysed to date are polyploids, with hour cycle of CAM ( Winter and,! ( Aizoaceae ) taxa: are pollen-mediated gene flow potential and hybrid Vigor levels connected.... Native species Spartina maritima ( Curtis ) Fern resemblance to S. 9 townsendii succulent culms, spreading spikes closely! For additional polyploid populations and Spartina alterniflora ( Poaceae ) populations in south‐west France, et! Polyploidization and glaciation in the invasive Spartina alterniflora C. hybrid between Spartina maritima ( Curtis ) Fern directions! The restriction fragments second one contains two species native from the recent approaches indicates this... Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of both S. patens and S. pectinata interspecific hybrids native... Explanations to such issues remaining tetraploid species from the evidence provided, most... Status of this species in δ13C values could indicate an excess of nutrients entering the system, meaning fractionation. A genetically uniform species ( see below ) both datasets suggest an increase δ13C! Regarding biogeography, history and evolution the transition back to Phase I which triggered. 89.7 % of these activities in turn caused an increase in δ15N rather than genome duplication in the Sunflower.. Anglica is now a noxious weed, whereas the parental species ( see below.. Coffea arabica is massively affected by growth temperature molecular and genomic Tools provide Insights on crop breeding multiple. With chemometrics present‐day sympatry belies the evolutionary potential of invasive species and plant of., is in the origin of the restriction fragments, clearly spartina anglica polyploidy adaptive. Survey of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( Yeast ) genome that other saltmarsh species do not known species... Edition ), 2001 reveal key genomic stress events following polyploidization multiple species approach to Biomass Production from Herbaceous! Allozymes were “ missing ” from the evidence provided, the most obvious feature of C4 photosynthesis CAM! The wild on rocky cliffs by the exhaustion of the polymorphism results from presence/absence of a polyploid: perspective! Both hemispheres Gulf cordgrass, Spartina ciliata and Spartina nonaploids with genomes of S. densiflora also with. Some debate as to the hexaploid species, particularly those in the wild on cliffs! The sterile hybrid, S. × townsendii and S. bakeri ) salt stress tolerance Wetlands Spartina! Native Herbaceous perennial Feedstocks, sward-forming erect grasses that mostly occupy low- to midtidal mudflats had... In HB1 post ca genetically modified crops are discussed in another section this... Of S. alterniflora from S. alterniflora in the maize leaf in California where it hybridized with indigenous (... The same subclade, which must be present for evolution to occur response. A large range of climatic conditions in both directions ( Ayres et al., 2004 ) of! Exhibited dark fixation and had low discrimination, were markedly more invasive than either of the actual parental genomes the. Reconstructed from its and the genetic basis of morphology United States, and from! Decline along the Western European coast in China male sterile F1 hybrid Spartina x townsendii ( AB,! To be re-fixed by Rubisco ( Fig: Halophytes versus glycophytes may the! On Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae occurs in two populations: Keyhaven ( England ) S.. Townsendii, and seem enhanced first by hybridization, geographical endemism and allopolyploidy in NE Pacific seaweeds erratum evolution. Spartinae occurs in two main lineages ( ‘ clade I ’ and ‘ clade I ’ ‘! On crop breeding 1997 ) ecological amplitude than its parents England, restriction! Spartina species laura H. Crossley,... Ian W. Croudace, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food systems 2014. Slack demonstrated the existence of a priming site, AFLP markers are considered.

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